characteristics of love waves and rayleigh waves
Rayleigh wave and Love wave are the major elastic waves in the category of surface waves. By using a full year of data in 2013, we are able to track the seasonal changes in our observations of Love-to-Rayleigh ratio and source locations. Figs 4(a) and (b) display theoretical dispersion curves for the fundamental and first and second higher-modes of Love and Rayleigh waves calculated by using 1-D velocity structures (Fig. The dispersion characteristics and excitation mechanisms of the surface waves (Rayleigh and Love waves) are also investigated via numerical simulation. The speed with which both types of waves circle the globe is truly mind boggling. Love waves and Rayleigh waves are both guided waves. A Rayleigh wave is a seismic surface wave producing the sudden shake in an elliptical motion, with no crosswise or perpendicular motion. A free surface requires the tractions to vanish at x 3 = 0; σ 33 = σ 13 = σ 23 = 0. Love waves cause horizontal movement of the land Love waves (L waves) only form on the surface of the Earth after a large earthquake. Love waves were studied and their behaviour was modelled by the British mathematician A.E.H. Augustus Edward Hough Love predicted the existence of Love waves mathematically in 1911. The speed with which both types of waves circle the globe is truly mind boggling. These waves travels in lithosphere only. Love waves are a major type of surface wave having a horizontal motion that is shear or transverse to the direction of propagation. Wave propagation and particle motion characteristics for the P, S, Rayleigh and Love waves are illustrated in Figures 1-4. Love and Rayleigh waves propagate primarily at and near the Earth's surface and are called surface waves. Their relatives, the Rayleigh waves, lag behind slightly, but still speed at about 7800 miles an hour. Rayleigh wave and Love wave are the major elastic waves in the category of surface waves. They are therefore similar to an S-wave (see blog September 10, 2008). Rayleigh waves in an elastic solid are different from surface waves in water in a very important way. The wave type of the microseisms recorded at Palisades, New York, is investigated to determine the Love and/or Rayleigh wave content. These waves travel at different speeds: P-waves are fastest, then S-waves, then Love waves, then Rayleigh. The vertical component of P-SV waves is commonly used to estimate multimode Rayleigh waves, although Rayleigh waves are also included in horizontal components of P-SV waves. B. Han1*, J. G. Shen2, X. P. Jiang1, C. Yin1, J. Jia1 and C. P. Zhu1 Abstract This paper reports on a study of the propagati on characteristics of visco-elastic, Rayle igh-like waves in stratified half-space Choose from 9 different sets of love waves and rayleigh waves flashcards on Quizlet. Love waves occur in a thin plate, while Rayleigh waves are a combination of transverse and longitudinal waves on the surface of a half-space. Instead, they jerk back and forth perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation (see Figure 2). A Rayleigh wave is a seismic surface wave producing the sudden shake in an elliptical motion, with no crosswise or perpendicular motion. These waves, which in contrast to P- and S-Waves do not travel through the interior of the Earth, race along its surface instead. These two points are the main conclusions of this study. In this numerical study, full waveform inversion of Rayleigh and Love waves was performed on two different spatially correlated Gaussian random fields (mean V S of 200 and 500 m/s) to mimic the natural spatial variability of geologic materials. This result differs from those of other studies of double‐wave‐frequency microseisms, which have shown the noise field to be dominated by a single mode, namely fundamental mode Rayleigh waves [ Lacoss et al. First, they are mechanical waves that transfer kinetic energy through the ground. The vertical component of P-SV waves is commonly used to estimate multimode Rayleigh waves, although Rayleigh waves are also included in horizontal components of P-SV waves. Recent studies, for example, have shown that (1) microtremor consists mainly of surface waves, (2) Frequency-wave number (F-k) and Spatial Auto-correlation (SAC) spectral Here, 3-component beamforming is used to distinguish between the differently polarized wave types present in the noise field recorded at several arrays across Europe. Symposium on the Effects of Surface Geology on Seismic Motion , Grenoble, France, paper 83. Love waves race around the Earth at almost 10,000 miles per hour. The wave animations illustrate wave characteristics and particle motion as listed in Table 1. Love Waves Love waves travel with a lower velocity than P or S waves, but faster than Rayleigh waves. Seismic Waves. Astrophysical Observatory. The density of the different layers of the Earth vary. A wave is defined as a repetitive disturbance traveling through a medium going from one location to another. One type of surface wave was first mathematically described by John William Strutt, a young British physicist. It is found that microseisms arriving from the southeast and northwest consist almost entirely of Rayleigh waves, while microseisms from the northeast and southwest have significant Love wave energy. Phase velocity dispersion curves for both Rayleigh and Love waves between 5 and 40 speriod were measured for each interstation path by applying frequency—time analysis. They form a distinct class, different from other types of seismic waves, such as P-waves and S-waves (both body waves), or Rayleigh waves (another type of surface wave). It moves along the ground just like a wave moves across a lake or an ocean. will look very similar to an S wave. Although annoying in some cases, Rayleigh waves can be a useful flaw detection and sizing tool [1,2,3]. The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative | 2). Rayleigh waves emanating outward from the epicenter of an earthquake travel along the surface of the earth at about 10 times the speed of sound in air (0.340 km/s), that is ~3 km/s. Love waves race around the Earth at almost 10,000 miles per hour. Love Waves Love waves travel with a lower velocity than P or S waves, but faster than Rayleigh waves. Surface waves have a dispersive characteristic that is useful in determining shear wave velocity variation or stiffness of the soil layers with depth. Love waves are surface waves Large earthquakes trigger Love waves. amount of Love waves. The Love wave represents the seismic surface wave whose movement is perpendicular to the direction the wave travels. Ambient seismic noise has become an important source of signal for tomography and monitoring purposes. Love waves move fastest among the other kinds of surface waves and it move the ground from side-to-side (no vertical displacement) to the direction the wave is traveling. Love waves are another type of surface wave; they involve shear motion.… We have demonstrated in eqs (60)–(65) that for multilayered models the perturbation formulae can all be expressed as certain weighted averages of the local thickness variations a i ( x ) and their spatial means a ̄ i ( x ) over the propagation path. We constrain the corresponding source regions of both wave types by backprojection. The Love wave signals were observed with higher average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than Rayleigh wave signals and hence cannot be fully explained by the scattering of Rayleigh waves. Characteristics that all waves have in common are wavelength, amplitude and frequency. Love waves occur in a thin plate, while Rayleigh waves are a combination of transverse and longitudinal waves on the surface of a half-space. Describe the characteristics of P-waves, S-waves, Love waves and Rayleigh waves, and explain how they are similar and different. As compared to body waves that travel through the Earth’s interior, surface waves only travel through the crust. Figure 3. Love. Shadow Zone of Primary Waves and Secondary Waves have been shown. Surface waves Love waves Unlike Rayleigh waves, which have coupled P-SV type displacement, Love waves contain only SH motion. Surface Waves Excellent illustrations of the wave motion of Love and Rayleigh waves can also be found in Bolt (1993, p. 37). The ground rolls that are surface waves such as Rayleigh and Love waves could mask the target reservoirs. Fastest wave 2. 1. First, they are mechanical waves that transfer kinetic energy through the ground. It is known that Love wave is not disturbed by P waves because of the particle movement direction. Love waves require a velocity structure that varies with depth, and cannot exist in a uniform half-space. The Love waves moving forward have a horizontal back and forth motion that cause the land to move horizontally back and forth as they move forward. Rayleigh wave motion also decreases with depth below the surface. Rayleigh wave and Love wave are the major elastic waves in the category of surface waves. S waves are slower than P waves and they can only travel through solid rock. Rayleigh waves are distinct from other types of surface or guided acoustic waves such as Love waves or Lamb waves, both being types of guided waves supported by a layer, or longitudinal and shear waves, that travel in the bulk. Rayleigh and Love waves are the two common surface waves. These cause horizontal shearing of the ground. = Describe the characteristics of P-waves, S-waves, Love waves and Rayleigh waves, and explain how they are similar and different. Yamamoto, 2000), because horizontal components of microtremors are composed of the Love-waves and the Rayleigh-waves and the separation of two different kinds of surface waves is usually considered to be difficult. Therefore, the information that Love wave carries is more distinct and clearer than the Rayleigh wave. They also come in two flavors which differ in at least two aspects: the particle motion they generate and the speed with which they circle the globe. All wave types are designed to propagate in the X direction (illustrated in Figure 1) and parallel to the Earth’s surface. Cooperative Institute for Deep Earth Research (CIDER), Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC), :  Destruction in the Eastern Aegean Sea, :  An Explosion in Beirut heard all over the Middle East, :  Quake in Turkey highlights the hazard in the East Bay. Love waves cause horizontal movement of the land Love waves (L waves) only form on the surface of the Earth after a large earthquake. Fundamental and higher-mode Rayleigh wave characteristics of ambient seismic noise in New Zealand Laura A. Brooks,1 John Townend,1 Peter Gerstoft,2 Stephen Bannister,3 and Lionel Carter4 Received 6 August 2009; revised 19 October 2009; accepted 26 October 2009; published 2 December 2009. Rayleigh waves are formed when the particle motion is a combination of both longitudinal and transverse vibration giving rise to an elliptical retrograde motion in the vertical plane along the direction of travel.